Women in Frontline Transit Apprenticeships

In honor of National Apprenticeship Week, TWC celebrated the tremendous progress made by transit agencies in implementing apprenticeship programs for various transit occupations. Women have long been under-represented in the most high-paying, highly skilled frontline transit occupations. The number of women in registered apprenticeship programs is increasing across industries, and public transit is no exception. Women from public transit agencies across the country have found rewarding careers with family-sustaining wages through apprenticeship.

This event featured a presentation from Liz Weiss, Deputy Director of the Working for America Institute along with a panel of women in registered apprenticeship programs from COTA/TWU Local 208 and MARTA/ATU Local 732.

Transit Workforce Center
November 2023
TWC mini case study

Approaches to Childcare Support in the Transit Industry

Transit Workforce Center
September 2023

At New York City’s Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA), the first sign of a problem was attendance. Los Angeles Metro experienced a similar phenomenon of worker absences, which grew worse during the COVID-19 pandemic. At Prairie Hills Transit in South Dakota, the agency (like many employers in the community) struggled just to get workers in the first place. In community after community, public transit is suffering from low employee availability, and a key driver of the workforce shortage is clear—a lack of affordable childcare.

The good news for the public transit industry is that a variety of models already exist that support the childcare needs of frontline workers. This case study describes three such models: a voucher system, an on-site center managed directly by the agency, and a discounted center managed by a contractor with supplemental referral services. Across the spectrum of agency sizes—from a small rural agency to an agency serving one of the world’s largest cities—transit providers have opportunities to support their workers, both as employees and as parents.

Please see the summary table at the end of the case study for an overview of each of these programs.

Background: The Urgency of Childcare Needs

The United States used to have one of the highest rates of working women among Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, but in recent years, the U.S. rate has declined. As parents struggle to find stable access to childcare, they are forced to limit their workforce participation, leave employment altogether, or pay an often-unsustainable portion of their income towards a childcare program. Using data from the National Survey of Children’s Health, the Center for American Progress (CAP) estimated that in 2016 nearly two million Americans made career sacrifices due to issues with childcare.

As the United States, and in particular the transit industry, faces a difficult and ongoing labor shortage, it is important for mothers to be able to participate in the workforce if they choose. Even though women are less present in the labor force, families are becoming increasingly dependent on the maternal income. Only about 30 percent of families with children rely solely on a father’s income; women are primary or equal earners in about two-thirds of families. Women of color with children are even more likely than white women to be in the labor force, be primary breadwinners, and be in low-earning jobs (NWLC).

Despite this necessity, childcare remains a determining obstacle. An analysis of the 2016 Early Childhood Program Participation Survey (ECPP) indicated that half of American families struggle to find adequate childcare, with cost most commonly reported as a barrier. Another CAP analysis found that over half of Americans live in childcare deserts (areas with few or no options for childcare). The maternal workforce participation rate is an average of three percent lower in these deserts than in areas with adequate childcare. Hispanic/Latino families are more likely to reside in childcare deserts and more likely to report location as an obstacle to obtaining childcare. The prevalence of location as an obstacle can be further explored with these interactive childcare desert maps.

Even small steps to alleviate childcare burdens can help parents join the workforce. A study of Washington, DC’s universal, full-day preschool program found that since the program’s inception, the rate of mothers participating in the city’s workforce increased by 12 percent. Subsidies to support parents in finding childcare assistance can have positive impacts on their workforce participation as well. A study of childcare and parent labor force participation found that just a 10 percent decrease in childcare costs could lead to a 0.5-2.5 percent increase in maternal employment. A paper from the National Bureau of Economic Research indicated that if childcare costs were capped at seven percent of income, the rate of low-income mothers in full-time jobs would increase by 18 percent and the overall maternal employment would increase by 10 percent, which would add 12 million mothers to the workforce. For individual families, gender parity, and the overall economy, these increases are important, and they are essential to mitigating the workforce shortage in the transit industry.

Childcare Examples in Public Transportation

Transport Workers Union (TWU) Local 100 – New York City Transit Child Care Fund (CCF)

In New York City, TWU Local 100 and NYC Transit came together to create the Child Care Fund (CCF), a financial assistance program designed to support the families of Local 100 members who need help paying for childcare expenses. In 2002, Local 100 proposed a new benefit for its members in the collective bargaining agreement: funds through CCF to support parents of young children in obtaining childcare. MTA management, concerned about the effects of worker absences on its operations, agreed to the new benefit. “Workers were doing the calculus of whether it’s worth it to spend X amount on childcare versus just staying home and not working and caring for the child instead. Childcare is very expensive,” said Charles Jenkins, Director of TUF. This no-win choice weighed particularly heavy on women. Jenkins recounted how historically, transit has been a predominantly male industry with few accommodations for women, even proper bathrooms, until recently. Long-standing worker shortages in public transit have led the industry to begin thinking differently.

CCF provides financial support to parents for either a year-round childcare program or for summer camps; the employee can choose. The employee also has the discretion to choose who cares for their child—CCF covers about forty percent of the cost of childcare in a licensed facility (up to $320 weekly), and about twenty percent (up to $160 weekly) if the provider is not licensed—for example, if the caregiver is a family member. If the employee chooses the summer camp option, fifty percent is covered (up to $1,000). The benefit is offered to all employees in good standing who have completed one year of employment, until the employee’s child reaches age 12.

The program is not without challenges. It is first-come-first-served, with limited funds, although most people who seek out the benefit do receive it. Some members report they didn’t know about the fund, and even with a subsidy, childcare remains expensive. Still, CCF’s support helps. “Our members are very thankful for the benefit,” Jenkins said, and the agency and union have found that attendance is high when adequate childcare is in place.

Prairie Hills Transit (Spearfish, South Dakota)

Over a thousand miles away and in a much more rural area, the childcare landscape looks different. Prairie Hills, SD, has struggled for years with a lack of childcare providers in the community. Around 2010, Prairie Hills Transit (PHT) Executive Director Barb Cline noticed that federal funds were available for the construction of new buildings. Thinking creatively, she pursued grants and loans from the U.S. Department of Agriculture for the purpose of constructing a childcare facility within the PHT campus. “We knew this was a community problem, bigger than our own staff,” Cline reported. With only about 50 employees, PHT’s staff didn’t have enough children for a center limited to employees, so the agency opened its doors to the wider community.

Today, this licensed, on-site childcare center can accommodate up to 41 children. To handle demand, PHT is expanding to a new rented location which can enroll another 25 or so children. Because childcare has a low profit margin, no external company would take on the contract, so PHT hired its own manager for the program. Now that the building has been constructed, the program sustains itself financially. Employees of PHT receive a thirty percent discount, while other parents in the community pay full price (though some use government benefits to pay and segmented payment plans are available). Children don’t age out formally, but most enrollees are age five or younger. PHT has found that male and female employees alike take advantage of the program. Recognizing that employees won’t be able to transport their children from school to after-school childcare in the middle of a shift, PHT obtained a separate bus with car seats to provide those trips themselves.

PHT reported several challenges it encountered as the program unfolded. Licensing requirements for childcare centers have gotten stricter and PHT has had to invest time to adapt. Another challenge for the agency has been the “human versus the financial”: if a parent only wants part-time childcare, the center wants to accommodate the family’s needs, but the accommodation results in the loss of a full-time spot and thus a loss of funds. Availability of childcare remains a challenge because demand is so high, even though PHT employees receive some degree of priority; “our waiting list is 12 pages long,” Cline said. Even with a subsidy, affordability is still a question for some families. However, employee turnover is low at PHT and childcare may be part of the reason.

PHT has realized that because of the geographic dispersion of employees and the low turnover of children in the center, some employees are not able to take advantage of the center’s offerings. As the program looks to the future, PHT is looking to build a second shared-use facility to expand capacity.

LA Metro (Los Angeles, CA)

Like so many other transit agencies, Los Angeles Metro found its workforce depleted as the COVID-19 pandemic progressed. The agency recognized that a lack of childcare delayed re-entry into the workforce.

LA Metro offers three options for their employees to find support  The first is, through a memorandum of understanding, a partnership with Pathways LA to provide referral services to LA Metro employees seeking childcare. Pathways LA gives parents digestible information about childcare options and assistance navigating the possibilities available. LA Metro also utilizes its employee assistance program through ComPsych Corporation Guidance Resources, which connects employees to a Work-Life Specialist. This specialist provides personalized resources custom to the needs of the individual employees seeking childcare in their area.  The third support is more recently established: LA Metro has leased a space it owns, beginning June 2023, to Pathways LA for a childcare center within walking distance  from Metro’s central maintenance facility and headquarters. This arrangement was established through a competitive bid process. The center is not exclusive to LA Metro employees, but employees receive a 15% discount and get priority enrollment. The center serves children up to age 5 and offers everything from an infant center to an educational curriculum for older children to special needs programming. LA Metro has hired a coordinator to oversee the relationship between Pathways LA and Metro, which has been indispensable to facilitating a smooth partnership, the agency reported.

As childcare needs have evolved, LA Metro has persevered in seeking the best options for its employees within available resources. Before the Pathways LA partnership, LA Metro had partnered with a different third-party provider; with the new partnership, largely because of inflation, prices have risen and employees that transferred from one provider to the other were impacted by the change. Prices were already steep and employees felt the increase keenly.  Another challenge has been the limitations of a single facility location: the fact that the center is close to LA Metro’s headquarters and central maintenance garage reduces travel and logistics for some parents, but not all Metro employees report to those locations. For LA Metro, a multi-pronged approach has been most successful.


Finding adequate childcare services is an imperative step in entering or re-entering the workforce, but it’s not easy for every parent. In the face of a widespread workforce shortage, if transit agencies are able to help parents with this step, it can help rebuild and maintain their workforce. These examples provide evidence that agencies of varied sizes across the county can find a childcare supportive service program that works for them. LA Metro found that neither subsidies nor self-administration of a childcare center was realistic for them, but partnerships with an established and trusted provider could further their employees’ access to childcare resources. On the other hand, Prairie Hills Transit, facing a childcare desert in their community, established their own center. Meanwhile, MTA and TWU Local found that cost, not availability, was the primary limiting factor for their employees, and they were able to address that challenge for many families. Other transit agencies can take similar steps, utilize their own unique resources, and learn from the challenges faced in these examples to facilitate access to childcare services for their employees, which in turn will contribute to a stronger and more reliable workforce.


Summary of MTA/TWU Local 100, Prairie Hills Transit, and LA Metro Childcare Programs


For more information on these programs, contact:


ATTAIN Rail and Facilities Apprenticeship Meeting

This recorded meeting of the ATTAIN Rail and Facilities Committee serves as a resource for transit industry stakeholders and includes presentations on apprenticeship and case studies of successful programs across the country.

Transit Workforce Center
September 2023

To learn more, please visit our dedicated ATTAIN and apprenticeship page.


Bus Operator Workforce Management: Practitioner’s Guide

This report, produced by the Eno Center for Transportation, International Transportation Learning Center (ITLC), and Huber & Associates, is a practitioner’s guide that provides recommendations and resources enabling transit agencies to better assess, plan, and implement their operator workforce management programs. A link to a related TRB webinar is also included.

Transit Cooperative Research Program
August 2023

Contributor(s): National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Transportation Research BoardTransit Cooperative Research Program; Robert Puentes; Philip Plotch; Brianne Eby; Paul Lewis; Karitsa Holdzkom; Xinge Wang; Douglas Nevins; Kenyon Corbett; Melissa Huber


Transit-Community Partnerships: Advancing Workforce Diversity, Equity, Access, and Inclusion

In this webinar, hosted by the Transportation Equity Caucus and Transit Workforce Center, panelists with experience in community-based partnerships that embrace diversity, equity, inclusion, and access discuss a variety of ways community-based organizations, transit agencies, and unions can engage in creating a strong workforce that fully reflects their communities.

Transportation Equity Caucus
June 2023

Featured Speakers:

  • Beth Berendsen, Policy Director, Chicago Women in Trades
  • Rich Diaz, Bus Operator Mentor Lead, Amalgamated Transit Union Local 1575
  • Aaron Koski, Senior Manager – Workforce Development, Metro Transit (MN)
  • Anna Penland, Assistant Transportation Manager – OECC Coordinator, Metro Transit (MN)
  • David Stephen, International Transportation Learning Center/Transit Workforce Center
  • Chris VanEyken, Director, Research and Policy, TransitCenter


Partnering With Purpose: Building Partnerships to Drive Equitable Registered Apprenticeships

This webinar recording features successful partnership stakeholders discussing how to create and maintain partnerships to support equitable and effective registered apprenticeships. Leaders of apprenticeship partnerships discuss the steps they took to build strong relationships with fellow stakeholders and the factors that make their partnerships succeed.

Jobs for the Future
May 2023

Apprenticeship Start-up Summary

These summaries outline the steps to tailor an effective Registered Apprenticeship (RA) program. These steps can be completed in order or, in some cases, concurrently. Apprenticeship programs are customizable to meet the employers’ skill requirements.

April 2023

If the workforce for the occupation to be registered as an apprenticeship is represented by a labor union, the employer and union would register the program as an Individual Joint program. If the workforce is not represented, the program would be registered as an Individual Non-Joint program by the employer.


Labor-Management Partnerships

This page from the US Department of Labor explains the benefits of labor-management partnerships, successful examples of partnerships, how successful labor-management partnerships help workers and employers, and provides additional resources for support.

Department of Labor
January 2023

Making Connections 2022 – Conference Overview and Videos

The Transit Workforce Center hosted Making Connections 2022: The National Transit Workforce Conference in Washington, D.C. on December 13-14, 2022. This conference brought together participants from urban, suburban, rural, and tribal public transportation and industry stakeholders in plenaries, workshops, networking, and ongoing dialogue. Discussions and sessions featured topics including recruitment and retention, training, mentoring and apprenticeships, new technologies, preparing today’s and tomorrow’s workforce, and advancing diversity, equity, inclusion, and access.

Transit Workforce Center
December 2022

Session materials from Making Connections 2022 are hosted on the TWC Resource Center. Please click here to view all related materials. A PDF copy of the conference schedule is linked below.

Opening Video: 

Recap Video: 


Making Connections 2022 – Out of the Box Strategies: Using Partnerships to Strengthen Recruitment, Retention and the Advancement of Diversity, Equity, Inclusion and Access

This session about DEIA advancement was presented as part of TWC’s Making Connections 2022 transit workforce conference in December, 2022.

Transit Workforce Center
December 2022

Session Summary: This session featured cutting-edge partnership strategies that advance diversity, equity, inclusion, and access while strengthening recruitment and retention. Representatives from transit labor and management, education, and national and local transit supporters and stakeholders provided a range of perspectives, while discussing innovative programs and initiatives along with their positive outcomes.

  • Jess Guerra: Executive Director, Transportation Workforce Institute – Los Angeles Trade Technical College
  • Mona Babauta: Deputy General Manager – Golden Gate Transit
  • Rich Diaz: Golden Gate Transit Mentor Coordinator – Amalgamated Transit Union Local 1575
  • Meghna Khanna: Senior Director, Systemwide Team, Mobility Corridors – Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority
  • Judy Shanley: Director – National Center for Mobility Management; Assistant Vice-President, Education & Youth Transition Programs, Easter Seals Director – National Center for Mobility Management
  • Tracy Spikes: Workforce Development Program Manager – Central Ohio Transit Authority
  • John Tkach: Executive Director – Keystone Development Partnership
  • Jarvis Williams: President – Transport Workers Union Local 208


Making Connections 2022 – Growing Your Own Through Apprenticeship: A Joint Approach to Building Skills

This session about apprenticeship was presented as part of TWC’s Making Connections 2022 transit workforce conference in December, 2022.

Transit Workforce Center
December 2022

Session Summary: Apprenticeship programs create a foundation for strong, effective workforce development programs. The ability to build and sustain these programs requires strong labor-management partnerships, or, in the case of nonunion agencies, ongoing involvement of, and management engagement with, the frontline workforce. In this session, panelists from a diverse group of transit agencies presented examples of challenges met and lessons learned as they designed and implemented their apprenticeship programs. Attendees heard how apprenticeship can support a variety of frontline transit occupations and the benefits that apprenticeship offers.

  • Jamaine “G” Gibson: Director of Apprenticeships and Workforce Development – Amalgamated Transit Union
  • Dexter Bishop: Elevator/Escalator Journeyman – Amalgamated Transit Union/Local 689
  • Stephanie Deiger: Chief Human Resources Officer – Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority
  • Brian Funk: Chief Operating Officer and Deputy General Manager – MetroTransit Minneapolis
  • Michael Hanssen: Supervisor of Technical Skills Training – Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
  • Alec Johnson: Bus Operator Apprenticeship Coordinator – MetroTransit Minneapolis/Amalgamated Transit Union Local 1005


Making Connections 2022 – Moving Forward Together: Creating and Sustaining Successful Labor-Management Partnerships

This session about labor-management partnerships was presented as part of TWC’s Making Connections 2022 transit workforce conference in December, 2022.

Transit Workforce Center
December 2022

Session Summary: Across the country, strong labor-management partnerships underlie many of the most effective public transportation recruitment, retention, career development, and advancement programs. In this session, experienced subject-matter experts from transit and from government discussed the importance and impact of these partnerships, provided program examples and outcomes, and highlighted key components in establishing and maintaining these relationships.

  • Brian Turner: Founding Director – International Transportation Learning Center
  • Shirley Block: President/Business Representative – Amalgamated Transit Union Local 757
  • Jamaine “G” Gibson: Director of Apprenticeships and Workforce Development – Amalgamated Transit Union
  • Andrew Hasty: Senior Advisor – U.S Department of Labor’s Office of Labor Management Standards; Commissioner – Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service
  • Nate Holton: Director of Labor Relations – TriMet
  • Denise Jenkins-Agurs: Chief People Officer – IndyGo
  • Charles Jenkins: Director – New York City Transit Training & Upgrading Fund/Transport Workers Union Local 100
  • Darnice Marsh: Labor Management Partnership Coordinator – U.S. Department of Labor


Building Pathways to Infrastructure Careers: Framework for Preparing an Infrastructure Workforce

This resource provides a framework for all workforce stakeholders, including infrastructure project leads, to engage the public workforce system in implementing the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law with strong workforce commitments and proven strategies that produce high-quality education, training, and employment opportunities for all workers.

U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration
October 2022

National Transit Frontline Worker Recruitment Campaign

Across the United States, whether large, small, urban, rural, or tribal, transit agencies are facing the challenge of recruiting and retaining drivers, mechanics, and technicians who can operate and maintain the buses of our public transit systems.  To help support local transit efforts, TWC is developing the #ConnectingMyCommunity national frontline worker recruitment campaign, coordinated with the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) and industry, labor, and community partners from around the country.

Transit Workforce Center
July 2022
TWC mini case study

Bus Operator Recruitment and Retention: Confronting Obstacles and Creating Opportunity

This multimedia case study details a high-road training partnership jointly operated by Golden Gate Transit and Amalgamated Transit Union Local 1575.

Transit Workforce Center; Golden Gate Transit; Amalgamated Transit Union Local 1575
June 2022

Golden Gate Transit (GGT) serves four counties in San Francisco’s North Bay. GGT suspended approximately 90% of its commute service during COVID. As of Spring 2022, the agency was operating at roughly 50% of pre -COVID service levels, but needed to hire and retain large numbers of bus operators as ridership demand returned. To achieve this goal, a GGT and ATU labor-management partnership created a high-road training partnership that worked with local colleges and California Transit Works to establish bus operator mentorship, pre-apprenticeship and apprenticeship programs. To guide its initiatives and actions, the partnership also examined data and asked underlying questions about the root causes of their employment challenges, resulting in reevaluating and adjusting some of its pathways to employment and hiring guidelines.

This resource contains presentation slides and video of a Golden Gate Transit/ATU presentation. The entire June 7, 2022 TWC webinar, Recruiting and Developing Today’s Transit Workforce, can be found here. It includes a question and answer session, beginning at 51:53, that covers more detail on this and other recruitment initiatives discussed in the webinar.

TWC mini case study

The Power of Partnership: Automotive Technology/Collision Career Technical Education Program

This multimedia case study details an internship program developed by the Central Ohio Transit Authority (COTA) and Transport Workers Union (TWU) Local 208. This resource contains a brief written summary, presentation slides, and video of a COTA-TWU Local 208 presentation. The entire June 7, 2022 TWC webinar, Recruiting and Developing Today’s Transit Workforce, can be found here. The complete webinar recording includes a question and answer session, beginning at 51:53, that covers more detail on this and other recruitment initiatives.

Transit Workforce Center; Central Ohio Transit Authority (COTA); Transport Workers Union Local 208
June 2022

To meet its need for vehicle maintenance technicians, COTA leadership partnered with TWU Local 208 and Columbus City Schools to provide a Vehicle Maintenance Internship Program, helping students already enrolled in an automotive program to develop additional technology competencies and prepare them for entry level positions. The COTA Vehicle Maintenance Internship Program provides career technical center high school students who have completed their junior year in a participating career-technical program the opportunity to work as paid interns in the Vehicle Maintenance Department at COTA. Students receive classroom training, hands-on training, laboratory experiences, and are partnered with mentors in preparation to enter the workforce as entry level automotive/collision technologies service technicians. From this foundation, COTA has now established a state-registered pre-apprenticeship and apprenticeship program to support vehicle technician hiring, retention, and workforce development.


Strategic Workforce Planning in Transit: Recruiting and Developing Today’s Transit Workforce

This is the second in the Transit Workforce Center’s webinar series on strategic workforce development planning in transit. TWC’s first webinar examined workforce development for the incumbent workforce. This second webinar focuses on how transit agencies and partner organizations are working to meet the significant recruitment challenges across the country and how to best turn these challenges into opportunities to reach, attract, and retain a diverse workforce. Two transit agencies and their labor partners discuss their innovative outreach and recruitment programs, including mentoring, pre-apprenticeships, and community college partnerships, followed by a presentation from a national organization leader who has coordinated cross-sectoral recruitment initiatives with agencies across the U.S.

Transit Workforce Center
June 2022

Linked below are a video recording of the webinar, the associated slides, and a webpage where all past TWC webinars are available.


Strategic Workforce Planning in Transit: Developing, Supporting, and Strengthening Your Incumbent Workforce

This webinar, presented on April 27, 2022, explores important considerations and best practices for creating strong strategic workforce development plans.

FTA Administrator Nuria Fernandez provided opening remarks, followed by insightful workforce development guidance and case examples from leading, experienced, and insightful presentations from IndyGo (Indianapolis IN), ATU International and Local 558, SporTran (Shreveport LA), TWU Local 100- NYCTA Training and Upgrading Fund (NYC), SEPTA (Philadelphia PA), and ProgressWorx.

It is the first in a series of TWC webinars on Strategic Workforce Planning.

Transit Workforce Center
April 2022

Elevator/Escalator Training Consortium

International Transportation Learning Center

The International Transportation Learning Center (ITLC) organizes multiple national training consortia to develop standards-based national training courseware for frontline occupations in public transportation organizations.

The Transit Elevator-Escalator Training Consortium (the Consortium) was the first in an ongoing series of industry-wide collaborative programs to develop integrated systems of training for key frontline occupations in public transportation. Building on national training standards developed by industry Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) from 2006 to 2010 and then adopted by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), the Consortium developed a full set of standardized national courseware to support training and apprenticeship programs for transit elevator/escalator (El-Es) technicians. The curriculum and courseware development team was composed of subject matter experts (SMEs) from five member agencies and unions from across the country. Membership of the Consortium consists of transit systems that maintain their vertical transportation equipment in-house, rather than relying on outside contractors. Equipment manufacturers contributed access to their technical drawings and manuals to enrich the courseware.

The list of courseware as of Summer 2020 is contained in the attached catalog.


The High Road to Public Transit

This report provides a project overview of the high road training partnership (HRTP) in California between Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) and ATU Local 265 and the formation of California Transit Works (CTW).

California Workforce Development Board
June 2019

Setting the Standard for Transit Apprenticeships

This article in In Transit summarizes The Amalgamated Transit Union’s (ATU’s) and the International Transportation Learning Center’s (ITLC’s) efforts to promote apprenticeship program development. It discusses apprenticeship programs at several transit agencies and ATU locals, as well as the role of mentorship in a successful apprenticeship program.

Amalgamated Transit Union
September 2018

The Transit Elevator-Escalator Training Consortium: A Model for Successful Training Development

A report on the process, products and outcomes related to the first National consortium for development of training for public transportation maintenance employees. This joint labor-management effort set a proven model for multiple other similar consortia. Products include – instruction ready courseware, a nationally recognized apprenticeship program for transit maintenance elevator/escalator maintainers and train-the-trainer program.

International Transportation Learning Center
September 2016

Labor-Management Partnerships for Public Transportation, Volume 1: Toolkit

This toolkit provides resources for public transportation management and labor union leaders to establish, manage, and improve labor-management partnerships. It includes a description of the development of a labor-management partnership charter, recommended actions for both management and labor union leaders, and a workshop framework to prepare management and union representatives with essential skills for establishing and managing labor-management partnerships.

Transit Cooperative Research Program
January 2015

Volume 2 of this report provides background material that was used to develop this toolkit.

Contributor(s): National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Transportation Research BoardTransit Cooperative Research Program; Scott Baker; Chuyuan (Viktor) Zhong; Douglas Taylor; William F. Scott; Richard Plante


Labor-Management Partnerships for Public Transportation, Volume 2: Final Report

This TCRP report documents the materials used to develop the Volume 1: Toolkit, including an industry survey and case studies. Volume 1 provides resources for public transportation management and labor union leaders to establish, manage, and improve labor–management partnerships.

Transit Cooperative Research Program
January 2015

Contributor(s): National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Transportation Research BoardTransit Cooperative Research Program; Scott Baker; Chuyuan (Viktor) Zhong; Douglas Taylor; William F. Scott; Richard Plante


National Guidelines for Apprenticeship Standards for Bus Maintenance Technicians

​These National Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee (NJATC) Apprenticeship Standards have as their objective the training of Bus Maintenance Technicians skilled in all phases of bus maintenance. The NJATC and its affiliated Local Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committees recognize that in order to accomplish this, there must be well-developed on-the-job learning combined with related instruction. This recognition has resulted in the development of these Apprenticeship Standards.

Developed by the Intl. Transportation Learning Center and National Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee (NJATC) in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Apprenticeship.

Approved and certified by the U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Apprenticeship on 8/25/2010.

International Transportation Learning Center & National Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee (NJATC)
August 2010

Transit Partnership Training: Metrics of Success

The Transit Partnership Training: Metrics of Success report is an overview of the key findings of the Metrics of Success series, which chronicles measurable outcomes, in particular return on investment, of transit training partnerships in which the International Transportation Learning Center has had a substantial role.

International Transportation Learning Center
February 2010

Training Partnerships That Work: An Emerging National Network

Training Partnerships That Work provides vivid summaries of successful labor-management training partnerships at sites across the country. The cases included here represent a diverse set of transit systems and unique training partnerships. Most importantly, they illustrate how labor and management can work together successfully on issues of training, and provide valuable lessons for other industries facing the problem of retiring baby boomers and inadequate capacity to train replacement workers.

International Transportation Learning Center
February 2010

Transit Partnership Pays: Working Together – Everybody Wins

This report highlights the evidence that the most successful, cost efficient and durable training systems come from industry based labor-management partnerships.

International Transportation Learning Center
September 2009

Jointly Sponsored Training Systems In American Industries

​This paper examines recent developments in credentialing in jointly sponsored training and qualifications systems across the United States. This paper builds on previous work on building trades joint apprenticeship and training programs, describes their structure and activities, and documents their superior performance.

Written in collaboration with Robert W. Glover, the University of Texas at Austin.

International Transportation Learning Center
February 2009

Working Together: A Systems Approach for Transit Training

​Transit faces a critical skills challenge driven by changing technologies, shifting workforce demographics and record-breaking growth in ridership. Working Together: A Systems Approach for Transit Training outlines how constructive training partnerships provide the most effective way for the transit industry to address its skill challenges.

International Transportation Learning Center
January 2009

Metrics of Success Series

The Metrics of Success series chronicles measurable outcomes, in particular return on investment, of transit training partnerships in which the International Transportation Learning Center has had a substantial role. Each Metrics report focuses on quantitative data from a specific partnership, while Transit Partnership Training: Metrics of Success is an overview of key findings from all Metrics reports to date.

International Transportation Learning Center
May 2008

People Make the Hardware Work: Transit Experts Call for Labor-Management Training Partnerships

This short toolkit outlines five tools for success in labor-management training partnerships:

  1. Unions as Partners
  2. A Joint Training Strategy
  3. Empowering the Workforce
  4. Cultivating a Learning Organization
  5. Reaching High Performance

International Transportation Learning Center; Transit Cooperative Research Program
March 2007

Pennsylvania Transit on the High Road

This report is part of a larger case study that chronicles the development of the Keystone Transit Career Ladder Partnership, including the process of job task/work task analysis, skills gap analysis, and data-driven training development.

International Transportation Learning Center

Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) Joint Workforce Investment Program

This case study examines the Joint Workforce Investment (JWI), established in 2006, which is a joint labor management partnership between the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) and the Amalgamated Transit Union Local 265 (ATU).  It includes discussion of three primary programs brought together under the JWI initiative: the Maintenance Career Ladders Training Project (MCLTP), New Operator/Mentor Pilot Project, and Health and Wellness Project.

ICF International